Lingual Ninja! - Japanese Lessons Online

This blog is for people studying Japanese! I hope this blog helps you study basic Japanese!

Breaking

Showing posts with label - Japanese grammar. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - Japanese grammar. Show all posts

Aug 18, 2018

August 18, 2018

Sama (さま) - polite way to call someone's name in Japanese



Hello. I'm Kosuke!



In the previous article, I explained about Japanese particle "を(wo)"!
  を(wo) >>



In this article, let's learn how to use "さま (sama)"!




Please remember only one thing from this article:

"さま (sama)" is a very polite way to call someone's name.




In the past article, I have already explained about "さん (san)".
  ~さん (-san) >>


"さま (sama)" is very similar to "さん (san)".

However, "さま (sama)" is much more polite than "さん (san)".


How to use "~さま (-sama)" is like 'Mr.' or 'Ms.' in English.



Examples:

EnglishJapaneseRomajiKanji
Mr. SasukeさすけさまSasuke-samaさすけ様
Ms. SmithすみすさまSumisu-samaすみす様


Like the examples above, "-sama" can be used for both male and female.

"さま (sama)" is put right after someone's name.

It can be used for both first name and last name.

If you don't remember about Romaji, please check this:

If you still don't remember basic Hiragana characters, please check this:

If you don't know what Kanji is, please check this:


Actually, "さん (san)" is a more common way to call someone in Japanese.

But if the person is very high ranked, we use "さま (sama)".



Also, you can use "さま (sama)" for your client.

When we first meet our client, we often use "さま (sama)".

When we can be frank with them, we start to use "さん (san)".

"さま (sama)" is very polite.
Sometimes, it is even too polite.

So sometimes even clients feel uncomfortable to be called with "さま (sama)".


Of course, you don't need to use "さま (sama)" for your friends.

However, when your girlfriend gets angry with you, you can use "~さま(-sama)" for your girlfriend. hehe




Also, "さま (sama)" is not only used for someone's name.

Please see the examples below:

EnglishJapaneseRomajiKanji
Godかみさまkami-sama神様
Kingおうさまou-sama王様

"かみ (kami) " means "God", and "おう (ou)" means "King" in Japanese.

Usually, we put "さま (sama)" right after these words to show our respect.




Also, "さま (sama)" is included in some greetings in Japanese.

In the past article, I explained about "おつかれさまです (o tsu ka re sa ma de su)".



"おつかれさまです" has many meanings.

But generally, we use "おつかれさまです" when we say good bye in the office.


It includes "さま" and "です".

As I explained in the past article, "つかれ (tsu ka re)" means "tiredness".

They put "さま (sama)" right after "tiredness" to show respect to their tiredness.

If you don't know what "です" is, please check this:
  です(desu) and ます(masu) >>



Also, Japanese people says "ごちそうさま (go chi so u sa ma)" after eating their food.


Actually, there is no "ごちそうさま" in English.

Japanese people always say this greeting after eating.


"ごちそう" means "meal".

They put "さま" right after "meal" to show their respect to the food and animals eaten by them.






Anyway!

Please remember only one thing from this article:

"さま (sama)" is a very polite way to call someone's name.


I hope this article helps you study Japanese!
Thank you for reading!



Aug 17, 2018

August 17, 2018

Japanese particle "を(wo)" - Make nouns Object


Hello. I'm Kosuke!



In the previous article, we studied about "の(no)"!
  ~の(no) >>


As I explained in that article, "の(no)" is a post-positional particle.
(It can be replaced by ['s] or [of] in English!)



In this article, I would like to talk about another post-positional particle, "を(wo)"!






I want you to remember only one thing from this article.


That is...




"を(wo)" makes an Object!



That's all I want you to learn from this article!



Regarding this, I will explain the three topics below:






Let's see the details!




1. The Hiragana character "を(wo)" is always a a post-positional particle



In the Hiragana chart below, there is a Hiragana character "を(wo)".
  Hiragana chart >>


However, this Hiragana character can be used only as the post-positional particle.


It is different from other post-positional particles, because other Hiragana characters used for post-positional particles can be included in many other words.

For example, we have already studied other post-positional particles, like は(wa), が(ga), and の(no).

These Hiragana characters are not dedicated to post-positional particles.
So they can be used in other words, like below:

EnglishHiraganaRomaji
scissorsさみha sa mi
post cardha ga ki
yesterdayki no u


Like the table above, the Hiragana characters of other post-positional particles can be included in any other Japanese words.


So when you see the Hiragana characters, maybe it is difficult for you to know whether the characters are post-positional particles or they are included in other words.

Especially since Japanese sentences don't include any spaces between words.

It makes it difficult for you to know whether it is a post-positional particle or not.


However, the Hiragana character "を(wo)" has only one purpose.

"を(wo)" is always a post-positional particle.


So when you see the character "を(wo)" in Japanese sentences, you can easily know it is a post-positional particle.







I have already told you the point I want you to remember from this article.


It was...


"を(wo)" makes an Object!



Do you remember this?


Its basic form is...

[Subject] は [Object] を [Verb].


As I explained in the article below, the noun in front of "は" becomes the subject of the sentence.


Like that,
the noun in front of "を" becomes the Object of the sentence!

"Object" means the target of the action of verbs.



Let's check the examples!



Examples:


1. じゅ
wa ta shi wa ni n ju tsu wo tsu ka u

     Meaning :  "I use an art of the ninja."
     
わたし I
にんじゅつ art of the ninja
つかう use

If you still don't remember all Hiragana characters, please check this:

If you don't know why は makes the sound "wa" instead of "ha", please check this:

If you want to know the details about わたし, please check this:



2.
wa ta shi wa ya mi wo ko no mu

     Meaning :  "I like darkness."
     
やみ darkness
このむ like, love, prefer



3.
wa ta shi wa bu ki wo na ge ru

     Meaning :  "I throw weapons."
     
ぶき weapon
なげる throw



These three sentences are so useful for you to become a ninja!

Like the examples above, a noun in front of "を(wo)" becomes an Object of the sentence!




3. Other usage for the prticle "を(wo)"


I think it is enough for you just to remember:


"を(wo)" makes an Object!



However, "を(wo)" also has a little different meaning as well.


Actually, "を(wo)" has three meanings:





Regarding "Object":

I have already talked about this in this article.

This is the most common usage of "を(wo)".

So I think it is OK for you to remember only this meaning for now.




Regarding "Starting point":

Sometimes, a noun in front of "を(wo)" becomes the starting point of the verb.

In this case, "を(wo)" is similar to the English word, "from".


Let's see the examples!

1. しゅ
wa ta shi wa i e wo syu p pa tsu su ru

     Meaning :  "I leave home."
     
いえ home
しゅっぱつする start, leave


2.
sa su ke wa mu ra wo de ru

     Meaning :  "Sasuke leaves the village."
     
むら village
でる leave


Like the above example, if the Verb is "start", "leave", or "exit", the noun in front of "を(wo)" can become the starting point of the verb.





If the verb means movement or transfer, the noun in front of "を(wo)" can be the place where the movement is implemented.

Maybe, in this case, it is best for you to translate "を(wo)" into the English preposition, "in".

Let's see the examples below!


1.
sa su ke ga mo ri wo ha shi ru

     Meaning :  "Sasuke runs in the forest."
     
もり forest, grove
はしる run


2.
sa su ke ga so ra wo to bu

     Meaning :  "Sasuke flies in the sky."
     
そら sky
とぶ fly


Like the examples above, the noun in front of "を(wo)" is the place where the subject moves.




Were these understandable?

Like this, "を(wo)" has three meanings.


 ・Object
 ・Starting point
 ・Movement


However, "Object" is the most important.





In this article, I am glad if you remember:


"を(wo)" makes an Object!



I hope this article helps you become a ninja!
Thank you for reading!




Aug 16, 2018

August 16, 2018

Japanese particle "の(no)" - Make words possessive


Hello. I am Kosuke!


In the previous article, I talked about です and ます!
  です and ます >>



In this article, I would like to talk about "の(no)"!




"の" is one of the "post-positional particles".

Japanese "post-positional particles" are "preposition" or "conjunction" of English.

However, you don't need to remember the name, "post-positional particle" here!





We have already studied some post-positional particles, like は.

   ~は(wa) >>
   は and が >>


Like the articles above, は and が make a noun the subject of the sentence.





But の isn't a marker for the subject of a sentence.

Actually, we have already seen の in the past article about I, my, me and mine.
  First person representation >>


In the article, we learned "わたし の(wa ta shi no)".

"わたし" means "I", and "わたしの" means "my".



Basically, の adds a meaning of "possession", even though there are other ways to use の.

Maybe, when you hear の, it means "possession" 80% of the time!



This "の" means ['s] or [of].




So, what about the remaining 25%?

In that cause, you should get angry with the Japanese speaker, and please say:

"Hey! Why are you using such difficult Japanese!? I always use very easy English for you! Also, I always bear with your inept English! Why do you use that difficult Japanese with me!? You are an awful person! I don't like you!!!!!!!".







.....OK!

Let's check the examples!



1. じゃ
ni n ja no mu ra

     Meaning :  "village of ninja"
     
にんじゃ ninja
むら village

If you still don't remember Hiragana chart, please check this:

If you don't know the Hiragana character "じゃ", please check this:



2. じょ
mu ra no do u jo u

     Meaning :  "training hall of the village"
     
どうじょう training hall

If you don't remember the Hiragana character "ど", please check this:



3. じゃ
ni n ja no ku n re n

     Meaning :  "ninja's training"
     
くんれん training



4.
se n se i no shi do u

     Meaning :  "teacher's coaching"
     
せんせい teacher
しどう coaching, guidance



5. りょ
sa su ke no do ryo ku

     Meaning :  "Sasuke's effort"
     
さすけ Sasuke
(name of person)
どりょく effort



6.
a i no mu chi

     Meaning :  "whip of love"
     
あい love
むち whip



7. りょ
ta i ryo ku no ge n ka i

     Meaning :  "limit of physical strength"
     
たいりょく physical strength
げんかい limit



8.
ya ru ki no so u shi tsu

     Meaning :  "loss of motivation"
     
やるき motivation
そうしつ loss, failure



9. しょ
sa su ke no ri syo ku

     Meaning :  "Sasuke's resignation"
     
りしょく resignation, turnover






Like the examples above, の can be changed to ['s] or [of].

I think this conversion helps you understand the meaning of Japanese sentences.


This is the most common usage of "の"!







Just in case, let's see the examples of other ways to use の...

But you don't need to remember the sentences below!




さむらい と にんじゃ どちら が すきですか?
Which do you like, samurai or ninja?

  -> When we give an option, we use の like this...




げんき ない にんじゃ
dispirited ninja

  -> This sentence has the same meaning as "げんき  ない にんじゃ".
     Sometimes, の and が have the same meanings...




       But!!!!!!!

For now, please don't care about exceptions!

"の" has too many meanings!


Please just remember:


"の" means ['s] or [of].


I hope this article helps you study basic Japanese!

In the next article, let's study another particle "を"!
  を (wo) >>

Thank you for reading!



Aug 14, 2018

August 14, 2018

です(desu) and ます(masu)


Hello. I'm Kosuke!


Have you already remembered many Japanese words?

Also, have you improved your skills in the art of the Ninja?



In the previous article, I talked about Japanese seasons!
  Seasons of Japan >>



In this article, I would like to talk about "です (de su)" and "ます (ma su)"!


Have you ever heard these words?

When you listen to a Japanese conversation, you will listen to these words often.



Grammatically, these two words are called "auxiliary verb".

However, you don't need to care about the name here!


This blog is for Japanese beginners.

So I would like to explain a very basic part of grammar.
I will omit the complex topics as much as possible.

The purpose of this article is to allow you to form basic sentences in Japanese!



At first, the most important thing is...

'です(desu)' and 'ます(masu)' are put at the end of sentences when you speak politely.



Also, please see the table below to check the difference between "です(desu)" and "ます(masu)".

Predicate of the sentenceWhich should we use?
Nounです
Adjective or Adjective verbです
Verbます

If you can't understand the table above right now, it is OK.
We will discuss the details in this article!

Also, maybe, the past article about 'は and が' will help you understand the table above:

If you don't remember all Hiragana characters, please check this:




First, please let me talk about 'です' here.




If you put 'です(desu)' at the end of the sentence, it makes the sentence polite.


Basic forms are like below:

  ・ [Subject] は [Noun] です。
   [Subject] は [Adjective] です。
   [Subject] は [Adjective verb] です。

   は : wa
   です : de su

 -> 'A wa B desu' means 'A is B'.


Actually, there is no "adjective verb" in English.
So you can think the "adjective verb" is one kind of adjective.

Sometimes, "adjective verb" is called "na-adjective".

"Adjective verb" includes the word "verb" in its name, but it is not a verb.

You are reading this blog.
So I think you already know English well (probably, better than me hehe).

Basically, English adjective is corresponding to Japanese "adjective" or "adjective verb".

So you can think Japanese "adjective verb" is one kind of adjective!


When I explained about "~は(wa)" before, I used the two examples using 'です(desu)' below:


Examples:

1.
wa ta shi wa ga ku se i de su

     Meaning :  "I am a student."
     
わたし (wa ta shi) I
がくせい (ga ku se i) student


2.
a na ta wa shi n se tsu de su

        Meaning :  "You are kind."
     
あなた (a na ta) you
しんせつ (shi n se tsu) kind


If you don't know the resason why 'は' makes the sound 'wa' instead of 'ha', please check this:


The two examples above are polite sentences because 'です(desu)' is at the end of the sentences.


If you don't need to speak politely, you can use 'だ (da)' instead of 'です (de su)'.

 1. わたし は がくせい
    (I am a student.)

 2. あなた は しんせつ
    (You are kind.)

However, I think you don't need to use 'だ' for now.

It is OK for you to use only 'です(desu)' at first.

Using 'だ' is kind of difficult because it is not so polite.

For example, 'だ' is used when you want to say your opinion strongly.
Also, 'だ' is used when you write a research report to inform readers of facts directly.

In addition to that, there are some cases 'です' can't be replaced by 'だ'. 
(when adjective is used)

So please don't care about 'だ' so much now, and let's use 'です(desu)' instead.

When you read or listen to 'だ', please just remember it is the same as 'です(desu)'.


So for now, let's focus on 'です(desu)'.

As I wrote above, basically, 'です(desu)' is used at the end of the sentence.

Basic forms are like below:

   [Subject] は [Noun] です。
   [Subject] は [Adjective] です。
   [Subject] は [Adjective verb] です。

  -> 'A wa B desu' means 'A is B'.


Please remember the three basic forms above!






Regarding 'ます(masu)', please just remember the form below:


   [Subject] が [Verb] ます。


Like the form above, 'ます(masu)' is used after a verb.

Basically, [verb + ます] is the last part of the sentence in Japanese.

You can put some special words after [verb + ます], like 'ね(ne)', 'よね(yone)' or 'か(ka)'.
However, please don't care about these here.

Please check the examples to understand it!


Example:

sa su ke ga a ru ki ma su

     Meaning :  "Sasuke walks."
     
さすけ Sasuke
(name of person)
あるき
(あるく)
walk


Like the example above, if the predicate is a verb, you should put 'ます(masu)' at the end of the sentence!

However, you need to be careful about one thing when you use 'ます(masu)'.

It is related to あるき and あるく written above.


When you put 'ます(masu)' after the verb, it changes the form.


It's called "Verb conjugation".


There are many types of verb conjugation in Japanese.


Actually, I don't think you need to learn all of them for now.


Even Japanese children learn it in junior high school.

They use it before learning it or understanding the grammar.

You will get used to the patterns by listening to many Japanese conversations.


There are too many verbs and verb conjugations to remember one by one!


I wrote how I got used to studying a language in this:

  Listening or Reading >>



Summary

In this article, it is enough if you remember the table below!

Predicate of the sentenceWhich should we use?
Nounです
Adjective or Adjective verbです
Verbます


Also, please get used to the forms below!

   [Subject] は [Noun] です。
   [Subject] は [Adjective] です。
   [Subject] は [Adjective verb] です。
   [Subject] が [Verb] ます。


Examples of the forms above are below!

   わたし は がくせい です。
           ->(I am a student.)

   わたし は うつくしい です。
           ->(I am beautiful.)

   あなた は しんせつ です。
           ->(You are kind.)

   さすけ が あるき ます。
           ->(Sasuke walks.)


Do you understand how to use です(desu) and ます(masu)?


In the next article, let's study about Japanese particle "の (no)":


I hope this article helps you study Japanese!
Thank you for reading!



Related article

Aug 10, 2018

August 10, 2018

~さん (-san)


In the previous article, I wrote about the difference between 'は' and 'が'.
  'は' and 'が' >>



In this article, let's study about '-san'!


I think how to use '-san' is important if you work with Japanese clients!



'~さん (-san)' is like 'Mr.' or 'Ms.' in English.




Example:

EnglishJapaneseRomaji
Mr. SasukeさすけさんSasuke-san
Ms. YoshidaよしださんYoshida-san

If you don't remember about Romaji, please check this:
  Romaji >>

If you still don't remember basic Hiragana characters, please check this:
  Hiragana >>



Like the examples above, '-san' can be used for both male and female.



If you want to call someone politely, '-san' is very useful.

When you meet someone, I think '-san' is best to use at first.

You can even use '-san' for your clients.




However, in Japan, there is one common manner regarding '-san'.


That rule is...


In front of your clients, you can't use '-san' for people working in the same company as you.


When you are talking with clients, you should not use '-san' for your coworkers, your boss, or your executive.



Example:

When you are working in the office, a client calls your company.



You answered the phone.
"Hello."


The client said, "May I speak with Yoshida-san?".


Ms. Yoshida is your company's president.


However, she took a day off, and she was not in the office then.


So, you answered to the client, "Yoshida-san is not in the office now"....

-> Stop!!!!


You can't use '-san' for a person who is a member of your company even if she is a president!

You should answer to the client, "Yoshida is not in the office now".





When I first started to work in a Japanese company, I felt guilty to do this because I used my president's name without '-san'.

My company's president is a much higher ranking person than me.

I wanted to use '-san', like 'Ms.'.


However, this is Japanese manners, and if you don't do this, it is a little rude for your clients.


The reason why I need to do this is to show clients that I am thinking that the clients are higher ranked than members of my company.



Is this troublesome for you?


I think so too! hehe
However, old people say, "Do in Rome as the Romans do."


At first, maybe it is uncomfortable for you.

However, you will get used to doing it soon, like I did before.


Also, I think this is the only one point to be careful regarding '-san'.

Besides this, you can always use '-san' instead of 'Mr.' or 'Ms.', and it is so useful!



In the next article, let's talk about seasons of Japan!
I hope this article helps you study Japanese.
Thank you for reading!

Related articles:

    ~さま (sama) >>

    Hiragana chart >>

    Romaji >>


Aug 6, 2018

August 06, 2018

は and が 2


Hello! I am Kosuke!

In the previous article, I wrote about the difference between 'は' and 'が'!
  'は' and 'が' 1 >>


Today, I will explain in further detail about it!



In the previous article, I said:

 - If the predicate is a verb, we use 'が'.
 - If the predicate is not a verb, we use 'は'.



Do you remember?



But actually, it is not impossible to use 'が' for the sentence whose predicate is not a verb. And vice versa!



Let's check the basic sentences we studied yesterday.



Examples of normal sentences:

1. じゃ
Sa su ke wa ni n ja de su

     Meaning :  "Sasuke is a Ninja."


2.
sa su ke wa bu ki yo u de su

     Meaning :  "Sasuke is clumsy."


3.
sa su ke ga o chi ta

     Meaning :  "Sasuke fell."


Three sentences above are the ones we checked in the previous article.

Let's see what will happen if we exchange 'は' and 'が' in the sentences!




Examples of exchanging 'は' and 'が':

1. じゃ
Sa su ke ga ni n ja de su

     Meaning :  "Sasuke is a Ninja. (and other people are not Ninjas.)"

If you don't know the word 'です(desu)', please check the article below:
  です(desu) and ます(masu) >>


Because 'は' was changed to 'が' in this sentence, it means that only Sasuke is a Ninja.

Regarding all three examples above, when 'は' and 'が' are exchanged, it includes the meaning that 'the others are not'.



Probably this sentence is used when someone asks:
 "Who is a Ninja?"

If you know Sasuke is a Ninja, you can reply:
 "さすけ が にんじゃ です!"



However, even if you know who is a Ninja, I don't recommend you to reveal it.

Probably he is on a secret mission.
You shouldn't reveal it to someone even if you do meet a Ninja in Japan.





2.
sa su ke ga bu ki yo u de su

     Meaning :  "Sasuke is clumsy. (and the other people are not clumsy.)"


Because 'は' was changed to 'が' in this sentence, it means that only Sasuke is clumsy.

Probably this sentence is replying to the question, 'Who is clumsy?'


Or, if your friend says, "You are clumsy" to you, you can say "あなた が ぶきよう です".
It means: "You are clumsy, and I am not."



3.
sa su ke wa o chi ta

     Meaning :  "Sasuke fell. (and the other people didn't fall.)"


This sentence is opposite from the two examples above because the predicate is a verb.

Because 'が' was changed to 'は' in this sentence, it sounds like "Sasuke fell, but others did not".

Especially, if you pronounce 'は' strongly, it emphasize "only" Sasuke fell.






Like the examples above, if you exchange 'は' and 'が', those sentences include the meaning of exclusion.


'わたし は にんじゃ です' just means 'I am a Ninja'.

However, 'わたし  にんじゃ です' means 'I am a Ninja, but others are not a Ninja'.



'さすけ が おちた' just means 'Sasuke fell'.

However, 'さすけ おちた' means 'Sasuke fell, and other people didn't fall'.



Did you understand?



Like we studied in the previous article, the basic rule is:
  - If the predicate is a verb, we use 'が'.
  - If the predicate is not a verb, we use 'は'.

However, if we exchange 'は' and 'が', it includes the meaning of exclusion!




Actually, maybe native Japanese people don't know this grammar.
They use these sentences without thinking.

If you think about grammar too much, it will disturb natural speech.
I wrote how to get used to a foreign language from my experience:
  Listening or Reading >>


Also, even Japanese language experts are still discussing the topic about 'は' and 'が'.
So I wrote the basic part of this topic in this blog.


I hope this article helps you study Japanese!
Thank you!

Aug 5, 2018

August 05, 2018

は and が 1


Hello! I am Kosuke!

How is your Japanese study going?
Also, is your practice to become a Ninja going well?


In the previous article, we studied about the first person representation!
  First person representation >>



In this article, let's study about the difference between 'は(wa)' and 'が(ga)'!


I have already talked about 'は(wa)' in this blog.

It is called "postpositional particle", and used right after the Subject of the sentence.

If you still don't remember 'は(wa)', please check this:
  ~は (wa) >>





'が' is almost same as 'は'.

If you see 'が' in a sentence, it means there is the Subject in front of 'が'.


So, what is the difference?


Actually, even Japanese language experts are still discussing this topic.
The detailed difference is very difficult to understand.


Therefore, I would like to talk about the basic difference of them in this article.


If you want to know which word you should use in a normal sentence, please check the predicate of the sentence!


Please remember the rule below:

Predicate of the sentenceWhich should we use?
Noun
Adjective or Adjective verb
Verb



Is that too complex?


I think it's OK for you to remember:
  - If the predicate is a verb, we use ''.
  - If the predicate is not a verb, we use ''.


Let's check the example sentences!



Examples:


1. じゃ
Sa su ke wa ni n ja de su

     Meaning :  "Sasuke is a Ninja."
     
さすけ Sasuke (person's name)
にんじゃ Ninja

In this sentence, "Sasuke" is the subject, and "Ninja" is the predicate.
Because "Ninja" is a noun, we use 'は' right after the subject, instead of 'が'.

If you don't know the word 'です(desu)', please check the article below:
  です(desu) and ます(masu) >>



2.
sa su ke wa bu ki yo u de su

     Meaning :  "Sasuke is clumsy."
     
ぶきよう clumsy


"Clumsy" is "ぶきよう" in Japanese, and it is an adjective verb (na-adjective).

In this sentence, "Sasuke" is the subject, and "clumsy" is the predicate.
Because "clumsy" is not a verb, we use 'は' right after the subject, instead of 'が'.



3.
sa su ke ga o chi ta

     Meaning :  "Sasuke fell."
     
おちた fell, dropped



'おちた' is the past tense of the verb 'おちる'.

In this sentence, "Sasuke" is the subject, and "fell" is the predicate.
Because "fell" is a verb, we use 'が' right after the subject, instead of 'は'.




If you know this information, you can communicate in a normal conversation!
So please remember the information in this article as a basic knowledge!


  - If the predicate is a verb, we use ''.
  - If the predicate is not a verb, we use ''.


However, actually, it is not impossible to use 'が' for the sentence whose predicate is not a verb. And vice versa.

But it changes the meaning of the sentence a little.

I will explain about it in the next article:
  'は' and 'が' 2 >>


I hope this blog helps you study English!
Thank you for reading!