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Showing posts with label - Japanese grammar. Show all posts
Showing posts with label - Japanese grammar. Show all posts

Jul 31, 2018

July 31, 2018

Time of the day


In the previous article, I explained how to say the days of the week.
  Days of the week >>


In this article, let's study how to explain the time of the day!



At first, let's check the keywords below!

EnglishHiraganaRomajiKanji
hourji
minuteふんfu n
secondびょうbyo
A.M.ごぜんgo ze n午前
P.M.ごごgo go午後
half-hourはんha n
aroundごろgo ro


Let's look at examples using the keywords above!

EnglishHiraganaRomaji
3 o'clockさん じsan ji
03:24さん じ にじゅうよん ふんsan ji ni jyu yon fun
10 A.M.ごぜん じゅう じgozen jyu ji
around 3 P.M.ごご さん じ ごろgogo san ji goro
02:14:37に じ じゅうよん ふん さんじゅうなな びょうni ji jyu yon fun san jyu nana byo
5:30ご じ はんgo ji han
5:30ご じ さんじっぷんsan jippun
around 5:30 A.M.ごぜん ご じ はん ごろgozen go ji han goro


If you still don't remember the numbers in Japanese, please check the article below:

If you still don't remember all Hiragana characters, please check the article below:

If you don't remember the characters, じ or ご, please check the article below:

If you don't remember the Hiragana character, びょ or じゅ, please check the article below:

If you don't know what Romaji is, please check the article below:



Regarding the table above, you can say either 'ごじはん' or 'ごじさんじっぷん' for '5:30'.

But if you have already remembered how to count numbers in Japanese, you might feel uncomfortable.
Isn't it 'ごじさんじゅうふん'?


There are two reasons for this:
  1. Sometimes, 'ふん' becomes 'ぷん'.
  2. Officially, 'じっぷん' is correct, instead of 'じゅっぷん'.


1. Sometimes, 'ふん' becomes 'ぷん'.

This depends on the number in front of 'ふん'.
Please check how to say 'ふん' below:

        1分 -> ippunn (instead of 'ichi fun')
        2分 -> ni fun
        3分 -> san pun (instead of 'san fun')
        4分 -> yon pun (instead of 'yon fun')
        5分 -> go fun
        6分 -> roppun (instead of 'roku fun')
        7分 -> nana fun
        8分 -> happun (instead of 'hachi fun')
        9分 -> kyu fun
        10分 -> jippun (instead of 'jyu fun')

Like above, they sometimes changes how to say 'fun'.
It is just because of habit or to make pronunciation easier.



2. Officially, 'じっぷん' is correct, instead of 'じゅっぷん'.

Actually, sometimes  native Japanese speakers also say 'jyuppun' instead of 'jippun'.
However, oficially, 'jippun' is correct.
So when you just talk with someone, maybe you can use whichever you want.


Like ふん and ぷん, Japanese language sometimes changes depending on the case.

So I would like to recommend you to listen to many Japanese sentences to get used to the changes.
I wrote about the way to get used to languages, this is recommended by me in the article below:


In the next article, let's study how we can say morning, daytime, evening, and night!
  Time of the day 2 >>


I hope this article helps you study Japanese!
Thank you for reading!

Jul 30, 2018

July 30, 2018

Months


In previous article, we learned how to count numbers in Japanese!
  Numbers >>


In this article, I would like to show one example how to use the numbers.


It is "Months"!




In English, we just say the name of the months, like January, June, October, and so on.

However, in Japanese, months don't have names!
So they just use numbers to say the months!


What to call months in Japanese is below:

EnglishJapaneseRomaji
January1がつichi gatsu
February2がつni gatsu
March3がつsan gatsu
April4がつshi gatsu
May5がつgo gatsu
June6がつroku gatsu
July7がつshichi gatsu
August8がつhachi gatsu
September9がつku gatsu
October10がつjyu gatsu
November11がつjyu ichi gatsu
December12がつjyu ni gatsu

If you don't know what Romaji is, please check the article below:
  Romaji >>



'がつ (gatsu)' means 'month'.


If you have already remembered how to count numbers in Japanese from the previous article, this is not so difficult, isn't it?



However, there are still some items you need to consider...


Why is April 'SHI GATSU' instead of 'YON GATSU'!?
Why is July 'SHICHI GATSU' instead of 'NANA GATSU'!?
Why is September 'KU GATSU' instead of 'KYU GATSU'!?



I am sorry, this is just a Japanese habit.
It is just because it is easier to pronounce.

When you practice months, please just remember:

      - '4 (yon)' becomes 'shi'.
      - '7 (nana)' becomes 'shichi'.
      - '9 (kyu)' becomes 'ku'.


Actually, there are more cases where the name of the numbers changes.
But in most cases, it is just because of habit or to make pronunciation easier.

For example, '40' is 'yon-jyu' normally.
However, if the number '40' is the age of someone, Japanese people sometimes say 'shi-jyu'.

In this case, both '40 (yon-jyu)' and '40 (shi-jyu)' can be used for saying '40 years old'.
(though 'yon-jyu' sounds more common)

I am sorry that it was not explained logically.
After you listen to many Japanese phrases, you will get used to those changes.

I would like to recommend you to listen to a lot of Japanese, not only just remembering grammar or words.
The reason I think so is written in the article below:



If you want to know how to say the seasons in Japanese, please check this:

Also, in the next article, I will explain about the days of the week!
  Days of the week >>


I hope this article helps you remember the months!
Thank you for reading!


Related articles:

    Seasons >>

    Days of the week >>

    Time of the Day >>

    Numbers >>



July 30, 2018

Japanese particle "は (wa)" - Make nouns Subject

In this article, I would like to talk about one exception to the Hiragana sound.

Basic Hiragana chart is below:
  Hiragana chart >>


The exception I would like to talk here is....







When you check the Hiragana chart, you will know 'は' makes the sound 'ha', like below:


Hiragana Romaji Meaning Part of speech
ha tooth noun
はは haha mother noun
はさみ hasami scissors noun
こはく kohaku amber noun


If you don't know what Romaji is, you can see the basic information about it in the article below:


As you can see from the table above, 'は' normally makes the sound 'ha'.




However, there is one exception to that.

The exception is below:

Hiragana Romaji Meaning
wa Make the previous word the subject of the sentence

This は is not a noun.
It is called postpositional particle.
It is used after the subject of the sentence.



Let's check the examples of it:


1.
wa ta shi wa ga ku se i de su


     Meaning :  "I am a student."
     
わたし (watashi) I
がくせい (gakusei) student
です (desu) am

In this example #1, わたし is the subject of the sentence because there is は(wa) right after it.
Like this example, は(wa) makes the noun in front of it the subject of the sentence.

If you don't know the word 'わたし(watashi)', please check the article below:
  First person representation >>

If you don't know the word 'です(desu)', please check the article below:
  です(desu) and ます(masu) >>


2.
a na ta wa shi n se tsu de su


        Meaning :  "You are kind."
     
あなた (anata) you
しんせつ (shinsetsu) kind
です (desu) are

Example #2 is same as #1.
あなた becomes the subject of the sentence because は(wa) is right after it.




Like the two examples above, when you use 'は ' as a postpositional particle, its pronunciation is 'wa', instead of 'ha', and it makes the noun the subject of the sentence. (word in front of は becomes subject)



By the way, there is one very famous example of 'は (wa)'.


It is 'こ ん に ち (ko n ni chi wa)'.

It means 'Hello'.



I will explain about Japanese greetings in the next article.
Let's talk about the details of 'こんにちは' there.


I hope this blog helps you study Japanese!
Thank you for reading!